Toxoplasmosis is due to infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. The infection produces an extensive variety of medical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various fowl species. T gondii has been recovered from places at some point in the sector, except Antarctica.
The seroprevalence of T gondii antibodies in the human populace varies geographically, with prevalence quotes approaching 90% in a few European international locations, while seropositivity charges in the United States have been expected to fall among 10% and 15%.
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) does no longer seem to affect T gondii seropositivity, and there does now not seem like any difference inside the charge of toxoplasmosis contamination among sufferers with AIDS with and without cats. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is majorly carried out by using toxoplasmosis serologic profile (TSP) exams which consist of dye check, indirect immune fluorescent takes a look at (IFAT), changed agglutination test (MAT), enzyme-related immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoglobulin checks (IgG, IgM, and IgE antibodies assessments), and amplification of unique nucleic acid sequences (i.E., PCR), among others. In the toddler, prognosis can be performed by means of tactics which includes amniocentesis and ultrasound test. Diagnosis can also be made through the direct commentary of the parasite in stained tissue sections, cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), and blood, but these approaches are less frequently used due to trouble in obtaining samples.
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Rising incidences of Toxoplasmosis, alongside principal intake of meat, red meat, and mutton, has resulted in the growing demand for powerful testing strategies for T.Gondii by way of diagnostics laboratories.
Today’s facts indicate that Americans consume an annual 66.18 kilos of beef in keeping with capita. The U.S. Census data and Simmons National Consumer Survey (NHCS) observed that 268 million Americans ate bacon in 2020, with over sixteen million ingesting 5 pounds of bacon or greater all through the year. The incidence in other meat-generating animals, together with sheep, goats, and horses, has not changed through the years, because the source of infection of those herbivorous animals stored on pastures has remained unchanged. In farmed sheep, the seroprevalence in Europe is logically correlated with age, growing from lambs (17 to 22%) to adults (65 to 89%).
Prevalence in chicken also varies markedly in line with manufacturing structures. Toxoplasma contamination in industrialized fowl farms is nearly absent, while the seroprevalence in unfastened-variety or backyards chickens is commonly excessive, as much as 100%. Due to their dependence on feeding close to the floor, unfastened-variety chickens have certainly been considered an awesome indicator of environmental contamination by Toxoplasma oocysts.
It is usually assumed that about 25 to 30% of the sector’s human population is infected through Toxoplasma. The occurrence varies broadly among international locations (from 10 to 80%) and often inside a given USA or between unique groups in the same location.
Low seroprevalences (10 to 30%) have been discovered in North America, in South East Asia, in Northern Europe, and Sahelian countries of Africa. Moderate prevalence (30 to 50%) were observed in countries of Central and Southern Europe, and high prevalence has been observed SouthAmerica and in tropical African international locations.
As for animals, many elements can have an effect on seroprevalence in human beings. Climatic factors affect the survival of oocysts inside the environment and, for this reason, contamination costs in meat-generating animals play a main role. The higher prevalence is classically located for tropical international locations with humid and warm weather, and conversely, the lower incidence is found for arid nations or less warm nations, however anthropogenic factors explain a big part of the variations in human seroprevalence, together with nutritional habits.
By Test Type
l Serological test
l Others (PCR, others)
By Sample Type
l Blood Sample
l Amniotic Fluid
l Cerebrospinal Fluid
l Diagnostic Laboratories
l North America
l South America
l Middle East & Africa
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The toxoplasmosis testing market is competitive and consists of several major players in the market. Some of the key players which are contributing to the growth of the market include ACON Biotech, Biokit, Biomérieux, Abbott Laboratories, Bio-Rad, Diasorin S.p.A., Bionote, Atlas Medical, LifeSpan BioSciences, Elitechgroup, Genemedi Suzhou Biotechnology, Gold Standard Diagnostic, Thermo Fisher Scientific., among others.
There are several serological tests are available for IgG detection with different sensitivities and specificities offered by companies, such as Architect® Toxo IgG assay (by Abbott Laboratories) which show specificities and sensitivities ranging from 99.1% to 99.8% and 92.1% to 99.7%, respectively. Other commonly used automated or semi-automated immunoassays such as Advia Centaur®, AxSym®, Elecsys®, Enzygnost®, Liaison®, Platelia®, Vidas®, and Vidia® shows various specificities from 99.3% to 100%, while sensitivities range from 93.8% to 100%.
The major players are adopting several growth strategies such as product launches, acquisitions, and collaborations, which are contributing to the growth of the toxoplasmosis testing market globally. For instance, in October 2017, Bio-Rad Laboratories received FDA approval for its BioPlex 2200 ToRC IgM Assay, a fully automated assay for the detection of IgM class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, and cytomegalovirus offered in a multiplexed panel. When used with the BioPlex 2200 System, the BioPlex 2200 ToRC assays, both the IgG and IgM, provide a rapid and comprehensive prenatal testing solution for three of the most clinically significant diseases. Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, and CMV are pathogens commonly associated with congenital diseases and therefore are tested during the first trimester of pregnancy.
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